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Richard Feynman:

A Brilliant Scientist



Richard Phillips Feynman, born in New York in 1918, was probably one of the most brilliant and influential [physicists/physicist] of the 20th century. [of waves and particles, Feynman, the way, developing, about, the which, interaction between light and matter, altered, is famous for, science, understood, a theory, the nature, ]. Feunman은 과학이 파동과 입자의 본질을 이해하던 방식을 바꾼 및과 물질 사이의 상호작용에 관한 이론을 발전시킨 것으로 유명하다.


In 1965, he [was awarded/has been awarded] the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. [Besides/Beside] his achievements as a physicist, he is also well known for the many interesting stories about his life.


Understanding the [ ] of Things

This story is about his father, who tried to teach Feynman [having/to have] a scientific perspective.


One day, when I was little, I was playing in a field and a kid said to me, “See that bird? What kind of bird [is that/that is]?” I said, “I don’t know what kind of bird [is it/it is].” He answered, “It’s a brown-throated thrush. Your father doesn’t teach you [something/nothing/anything]!”

But it was the opposite. My father [had already taught/has already taught] me: “See that bird?” he said. “It’s a Spencer’s warbler. Well, in Italian, it’s a Chutto Lapittida. In Portuguese, it’s a Bom Da Peida. In Chinese, it’s a Chung-long-tah, and in Japanese, it’s a Katano Tekeda.” I knew he didn’t know the real name. “You can know the name of that bird in all the languages of the world, but you’ll know absolutely nothing about the bird. So, let’s look at the bird and see what it’s doing [ ].”그것이 중요한거란다


He said, “Look. The bird pecks at its feathers all the time. [ think, do, their feathers, you, birds, Why, peck at, ]?” 왜 새들이 그들의 깃털을 쫀다고 생각하니?

I answered, “Well, maybe they mess up their feathers when they fly, so they’re pecking at them in order to [straighten out them/straighten them out].” “All right,” he said. “If that [were/is] the case, then they would peck a lot just after they’ve been flying. Let’s look and see [if/that] they peck more just after they land.”

It wasn’t hard to tell: There [were/was] not much difference between the birds that had been walking around a bit on land and [that/those] that had just landed. So I said, “I give up. Why does a bird peck at its feathers?” “Because there are bugs [to bother/bothering] [them/it],” he said. “The bugs eat flakes of protein that [comes/come] off its feathers. Everywhere there’s a source of food, there’s some form of life that finds it.”

[ was, knowing, then, that, the difference, It, between, the name of something, and, I learned, knowing, something,] 그때가 바로 내가 무언가의 이름을 아는 것과 무언가를 아는 것 사이의 차이를 배운 때 이다.


Enjoying [ ] and [ ]

This story is about how Feynman enjoyed [to observe/observing ]nature in action and how he could solve a problem through a simple experiment.


When I was at Princeton, I had a little hand microscope. I pulled the magnification piece out of it, and would hold it in my pocket like a magnifying glass. I once took it out of my pocket to look at some ants that were crawling around on some leaves. [That/What] I saw [was/were] an ant and an aphid. In nature, ants protect aphids from ladybugs and carry [it/them] from plant to plant. The ants, in return, get [partially/partial] digested aphid juice [calling/called] “honeydew.” I already knew that가르키는 내용은?, but I [had never seen/have never seen] it.

The ant patted the aphid with its feet all around the aphid, pat, pat, pat. I could not believe my eyes! Then the juice came out of the back of the aphid. As it was [magnifying/magnified], it looked like a big, beautiful ball because of the surface tension.

The ant took this ball in its two front feet, lifted [it/them] off the aphid, and [held/holding] it. The ants probably have a greasy material on their legs that [doesn’t/don’t] break the surface tension of the juice. Then the ant broke the surface of the drop with its mouth and ate the honeydew. [happen, I ,was, amazed, was, to see, this whole thing, simply, ]!나는 이 모든 것이 일어나는 것을 보고는 경이로울 뿐이었다.


Around the same time, the ants found my food, which was [quite a distance/a quite distance] from the window. A long line of ants crawled along the floor across the living room. It was when I was doing several experiments on the ants. I said to [me/myself], “What can I do to [from, stop, coming, them, to my food] without killing any of them? No poison; I don’t want to harm the ants!”

[ ]내가 한 것 was this: In preparation, I put a bit of sugar about 20 centimeters from their entry point into the room, [that/which] they didn’t know about. Then I made a paper ferry and put it on their trail. Whenever an ant [returned/returning] with food walked onto my little ferry, I would carry the insect over and put it on the sugar. Any ant coming toward the food [which/that] walked onto the ferry, I also carried over to the sugar.해석하시오.


Eventually, the ants found their way from the sugar to their hole, so this new trail was being used more and more, while the old trail was being used less and less. Half an hour later, the old trail dried up, and in an hour the ants were out of my food. I didn’t wash the floor;[ ]. 나는 개미들을 배에 태운것 외에는 아무것도 하지 않았다.

Through these experiences, I came to know the joy of observing things and solving problems through experiments.

Unit 5 Egypt at a Glance


Egypt is [located/locating] in Africa but [was/has been] culturally closer to the Middle East for thousands of years. Egypt is filled with ancient [remain/remains] and has various cultures and religions. People say that the whole country is like a [ ].


The Nile River Flows

The Nile, [where/which] gave [ ] to Egyptian civilization, flows through Cairo, the capital of Egypt. Cairo is a city that has both a traditional and modern look. [Stood/Standing] by the river and looking toward the city made me feel as if I [was/were] standing on the banks of the Han River.


"My Son Is Not for Sale"

The Friday market seemed to have everything. It seems that구조로 변형:

It sold not only household items such as home appliances, clothes and dishes, [but/and] also animals such as pigeons and rabbits. I found a man who was selling nails, hammers, and other tools. A boy was sleeping on the man's table. He [must have been/must be] so tired from working in the market with his dad. The man also looked really tired, but [strength, he, had, to, humorous, enough, and, be, say,], 그는 재치 있게 말할 수 있을 정도로 충분한 힘을 가졌었다."My son is not for sale."


The Camel Guarding the Pyramids

[That/What] first came to mind when I thought of Egypt were the pyramids. The pyramids have been used as the setting for many books and movies because of their geometric shape and the mysteries [relating/related] to them지칭어. So, the pyramids seemed familiar, but [ was, riding, unfamiliar, was, what, a police officer, a camel,].익숙하지 않은 것은 낙타를 타고 있는 경찰이었다.

As I watched the big-eyed camel [to blink/blinking] and [to walk/walking] slowly, I wondered how the police officer could ever catch a thief. [ the slow camel, thief, may, Many, escape, because of, ]. 많은 도둑들이 느린 낙타 때문에 도망 갈 수 있었을 것이다. 어형 변화시키시오.

[Although/Despite] my worries, the camel walked faithfully around the pyramids as if it [knows/knew] it had to guard them.


The [Newly/New] Assembled Abu Simbel Temples

The Abu Simbel temples were built by Ramses around 3,2`00 years ago. On each [side/sides] of the temples' entrance, we can see his [20-meters-high/20-meter-high] [statues/statuses] that show how powerful the king was. In fact, these temples were in danger of [flooding/being flooded] because of the Aswan High Dam. So, they were separated into small blocks in the early 1960s and [reassembling/reassembled] in a new location in 1968. th temples now [sit/seat] on land that is [60meters/60meter] higher than their original site. The surprising fact is that you can't tell they were ever moved.


No Driver's License Necessary!

In the desert, there seems to be [ ]오직, 2단어 sand, stone, and the hot sun. But people can live there because of the oasis. There are big and small villages surrounding [them/it]. In these villages, mules and camels are important for transportation, and I usually took wagon taxis [leading/led] by mules. The speed was so slow, but it was fun. I met some children riding a wagon on their way home from school. In the oasis villages, both children and adults knew how to ride mules well. Without a driver's license, of course!


The Black Desert and the White Desert

I [have thought/had thought] that there was only one kind of desert. But while I was traveling in Egypt, I found out that there are many different kinds. These are pictures of the Black Desert and the White Desert in the region of Bahariya. The Black Desert has become black [because/because of ]the leftover iron from volcanic activity [affected/effected] the soil. Everything [was/were] black as if I [was/were] in a coal mine. On the other hand, the White Desert is covered in limestone. It looked as if white paint [has been/had been] spilled everywhere.


The Sunset on the Nile

People along the Nile have caught fish and used the river for agriculture and transportation for thousands of years. The Nile is [ ] just a river [ ] the source of life for Egyptians. My parents told me that in the old days in Seoul, people caught fish and washed their clothes in the Han River. We can’t find people fishing on the Han River anymore, but we can still see a lot of people [caught/catching] fish on the Nile. At sunset, I looked out at the beautiful scenery that seemed like a gift from the sky to the Egyptians who work hard every day. 해석

[I, the sunset, wondered, how, would, on the Han River, look,]. 나는 한강에서의 석양은 어떻게 보일지 궁금했다.

When I go back to Korea, I will make sure to go and see the sunset on the Han River.










Unit 6 Two Artists in Arles

Many people believe that Vincent van Gogh(1853-1890) and Paul Gauguin (1848-1903) were the greatest painters of the late 19th century. But did you know that they once worked together for nine weeks? Well, they [did/were]. Their friendship, rivalry, and passion for art [ ][ ]눈에 띄다 in the history of modern art.

Van Gogh and Gauguin first met in Paris in the autumn of 1887. Both were seeking a new way to paint. They learned that they shared the belief [which/that] art should be [pursued/pursuing] away from big cities like Paris. The following year, van Gogh moved to Arles in southern France and [found/founded] the "studio of the south." Through the studio, also known [as/for] the Yellow House, he wanted to create a space [which/where] artists could work together, [inspired/inspiring] one another. =( ) ( ) ( )

Van Gogh asked Gauguin to join him in the small town. After [repeated/repeating] requests, Gauguin finally arrived at the studio on October 23, 1888. Van Gogh was thankful because now he was able to work with [the other/another] [gifted/gift] painter. To show his gratitude, Gogh decorated Gauguin's room with his painting of sunflowers, a symbol of [ ] and [ ] in van Gogh's life.


Gauguin's arrival started a period of close interaction. At the Yellow House, the two painters discussed and shared ideas about art. They experimented with many new ideas. One of [them/which] [was/were] to paint on jute, a fabric [commonly/common] [used/using] for making rope and curtains. The new canvas was tough. So, the artists were able to apply paint more thickly and [used/use] heavier brush strokes, introducing a unique feel to their painting. 해석하시오. =( ) ( ) ( )


The two artists produced many great paintings while they were together in Arles. Their paintings from this period show the [ ] between van Gogh and Gauguin. Van Gogh took Gauguin to beautiful places in Arles, and the two shared models and landscape motifs. It is no wonder, then, that [common/different] subjects often [are appeared/appear] in the paintings by both artists. [Furthermore/However], there were some differences between the two painters. Van Gogh liked to be realistic. He painted landscapes, people, and plants as they appeared to him.해석

He painted [ ]즉석에서, often producing several versions of the same subject. Gauguin's approach was different. [Taken/To take/Taking] considerable time, Gauguin made numerous sketches to capture the features of his subjects. After gathering visual details of his subjects on the spot, he went back to the studio [which/where] he began painting [based/basing] on his memory and imagination. [different, the two painters, approaches, reflected, in, are, what, The, produced],. 다른 접근법은 그 두 화가가 만들어 낸 것에서 반영되어 졌다.


Dynamic colors and clearly visible brush strokes are the distinct features of van Gogh's works. [Similarly/In contrast], Gauguin used flat colors and sometimes rubbed the paint into the canvas, [leaving/left] no trace of strokes behind.

The two artists differed not just in the way they painted. They also had sharply contrasting views on important issues. All this 의미하는 바는? turned [ ] into frequent conflicts.


Gauguin repeatedly pushed van Gogh to use his memory and imagination more. [Although/Because] Gogh tried to paint in Gauguin's manner, he was unable to change his style. [The two artists, it, to work, hard, together, found, again,]. 그 두 화가는 다시 같이 일하는 것이 어렵다는 것을 발견했다.

By mid-November, they no longer worked or ate together. [The conflicts, what, the two, are, created, evident, in, between, they,].그 두 사람 사이의 갈등은 그들이 창조해 낸 것에서 분명히 나타난다


For instance, Gauguin's portrait of Gogh depicts him as a weak, [ ] painter. Van Gogh is holding a thin brush while the sunflowers hang loosely like the artist's body. In this way, Gauguin wanted to insult van Gogh and his art.

The relationship worsened [days by days/day by day]. After a terrible accident [which/in which] van Gogh injured [him/himself], Gauguin decided to leave the studio. He [left for/left] Paris on December 26, 1888. After that, they never saw each other again. Although van Gogh and Gauguin stopped [working/to work] together, they exchanged letters until van Gogh's death in 1890.


The collaboration at the Yellow House lasted for only nine weeks. [As a result/Nevertheless],

the [ ]짧은 기간의 collaboration greatly affected the painters. Gauguin continued to use juste as a canvas and yellow, van Gogh‘s favorite color. On the other hand, van Gogh’s works became [less/more] realistic than before. He probably tried hard to paint the way his friend used to paint. Together, the two artists wrote one chapter of modern art history.



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